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2021年南开大学外国语学院语言学基础考研全套

[] [] [] 发布人:静业学习网   发布日期:2020-06-02 10:36   共 33 人浏览过

点击查看>>2021年南开大学外国语学院《语言学基础》考研全套

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说明:本全套共包括4种电子书、3种打印版(赠品)、1种图书。
1.考研真题
说明:本部分收录了本科目近年考研真题,提供了答案及详解,并对常考知识点进行了归纳整理。此外提供了相关院校考研真题,以供参考。

2004年南开大学外国语学院应用语言学真题及详解

考试科目:应用语言学

I. Illustrate each of the following terms briefly. (45 points)

1. prescriptive linguistics

【答案】Prescriptive linguistics: the linguistics that tries to lay down rules for “correct” behaviors. It seeks to tell people how language ought to be used by those who wish to use it.查看答案

2. Displacement

【答案】Displacement: Language can be used to refer to what is present, what is absent, what happens at present, what happened in the past, what will happen in the future or what happens in a far-away place. This property of language enables language users to overcome the barriers caused by time and place. For example, we can talk about Sapir, who is already dead; we can even talk about next week, which is in the future.查看答案

3.IPA

【答案】IPA: the abbreviation of International Phonetic Alphabet, which is devised by the International Phonetic Association in 1888. IPA is a set of symbols which can be used to represent the phones and phonemes of natural languages.查看答案

4.suprasegmental

【答案】Suprasegmental: aspects of speech that involve more than single sound segments. The principle Suprasegmental features are syllable, stress, tone, and intonation.查看答案

5.blendings

【答案】Blending is a process in which two words are blended by joining the initial part of the first word and the final part of the second word, or by joining the initial parts of the two words. For example, the word “smog” is blended from “smoke” and “fog”.查看答案

6.denotation

【答案】Denotation: the core sense of a word or a phrase that relates it to phenomena in the real world. In the case of linguistic signs, the denotative meaning is what the dictionary attempts to provide. It is the literal meaning of a word, the dictionary meaning, opposite to connotation.查看答案

7.hyponymy

【答案】Hyponymy. It refers to the sense relationship between a more general, more inclusive and a more specific word. The word which is more general in meaning is called the superordinate, and the more specific words are called its hyponyms. For example, the hyponymy relationship could be established between “animal” and “rabbit”.查看答案

8.stem

【答案】A stem is any morpheme or combination of morphemes to which an inflectional affix can be added. For example, “friend-” in friends, and “friendship-” in friendships are both stems. The former shows that a stem can be equivalent to a root, whereas the latter shows that a stem may contain a root and a derivational affix.查看答案

9.inflectional morpheme

【答案】Inflectional morpheme: It is also called inflectional affixes, which attaches to the end of words Inflectional affixes and only add a minute or delicate grammatical meaning to the stem. The plural suffix is a typical example of this kind.查看答案

10.back-formation

【答案】It refers to an abnormal type of word-formation where a shorter word is derived by deleting an imagined affix from a longer form already in the language. For example, from “editor” the word “edit” was generated.查看答案

11.c-command

【答案】C-command: A c-commands B if and only if: 1) A does not dominate B and B does not dominate A; 2) The first branching dominating A also dominates B.查看答案

12.Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

【答案】Sapir-Whorf hypothesis consists of two parts: linguistic determinism and linguistic relativity. Linguistic determinism refers to the notion that a language determines certain nonlinguistic cognitive processes. Different languages offer people different ways of expressing around, they think and speak differently. Linguistic relativity refers to the claim that the cognitive processes that are determined are different for different languages. Thus, speakers of different languages are said to think in different ways. The hypothesis is now interpreted mainly in two different ways: a strong version and a weak one. The strong version believes that the language patterns determine people’s thinking and behavior; the weak one holds that the former influence the later. So far, many researches and experiments conducted provide support to the weak version.查看答案

13.context of situation

【答案】Context of situation: It refers to the linguistic and situational environment in which a word, utterance or text occurs. The meaning of utterances, etc., is determined not only by the literal meaning of the words used but also by the context or situation in which they occur.查看答案

14.corpus linguistics

【答案】Corpus linguistics: an approach to investigating language structure and use through the analysis of large databases to real language examples stored on computer. Issues amenable to corpus linguistics include the meanings of words across registers, the distribution and function of grammatical forms and categories, the investigation of lexico-grammatical associations, and issues in language acquisition and development.查看答案

15.CALL

【答案】CALL: It is the abbreviation of computer-assisted language learning, which refers to the use of a computer in the teaching or learning of a second or foreign language. In this kind of CALL programs, the computer leads the student through a learning task step-by-step, asking questions to check comprehension. Depending on the student’s response, the computer gives the student further practice or progresses to new material.查看答案

II. Name each of the following IPA symbols. (10 points)

1.[]

【答案】voiceless postalveolar fricative查看答案

2.[j]

【答案】palatal approximant查看答案

3.

【答案】glottal plosive查看答案

4.[w]

【答案】bilabial approximant


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